Advertisement
New Zealand markets close in 4 hours 44 minutes
  • NZX 50

    12,089.56
    -33.58 (-0.28%)
     
  • NZD/USD

    0.6075
    -0.0003 (-0.04%)
     
  • NZD/EUR

    0.5572
    +0.0000 (+0.00%)
     
  • ALL ORDS

    8,262.40
    +56.30 (+0.69%)
     
  • ASX 200

    8,017.60
    +58.30 (+0.73%)
     
  • OIL

    81.85
    -0.06 (-0.07%)
     
  • GOLD

    2,425.70
    -3.20 (-0.13%)
     
  • NASDAQ

    20,386.88
    +55.38 (+0.27%)
     
  • FTSE

    8,182.96
    -69.95 (-0.85%)
     
  • Dow Jones

    40,211.72
    +210.82 (+0.53%)
     
  • DAX

    18,590.89
    -157.31 (-0.84%)
     
  • Hang Seng

    18,015.94
    -277.46 (-1.52%)
     
  • NIKKEI 225

    41,190.68
    0.00 (0.00%)
     
  • NZD/JPY

    96.0820
    +0.0580 (+0.06%)
     

Chevron Corporation's (NYSE:CVX) Intrinsic Value Is Potentially 59% Above Its Share Price

Key Insights

  • The projected fair value for Chevron is US$244 based on 2 Stage Free Cash Flow to Equity

  • Chevron is estimated to be 37% undervalued based on current share price of US$153

  • The US$184 analyst price target for CVX is 25% less than our estimate of fair value

In this article we are going to estimate the intrinsic value of Chevron Corporation (NYSE:CVX) by projecting its future cash flows and then discounting them to today's value. Our analysis will employ the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Models like these may appear beyond the comprehension of a lay person, but they're fairly easy to follow.

We would caution that there are many ways of valuing a company and, like the DCF, each technique has advantages and disadvantages in certain scenarios. For those who are keen learners of equity analysis, the Simply Wall St analysis model here may be something of interest to you.

ADVERTISEMENT

Check out our latest analysis for Chevron

Step By Step Through The Calculation

We're using the 2-stage growth model, which simply means we take in account two stages of company's growth. In the initial period the company may have a higher growth rate and the second stage is usually assumed to have a stable growth rate. In the first stage we need to estimate the cash flows to the business over the next ten years. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, and so the sum of these future cash flows is then discounted to today's value:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) forecast

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

Levered FCF ($, Millions)

US$23.4b

US$28.3b

US$23.6b

US$25.6b

US$25.9b

US$26.3b

US$26.8b

US$27.3b

US$27.9b

US$28.5b

Growth Rate Estimate Source

Analyst x9

Analyst x8

Analyst x4

Analyst x1

Est @ 1.23%

Est @ 1.57%

Est @ 1.81%

Est @ 1.98%

Est @ 2.10%

Est @ 2.19%

Present Value ($, Millions) Discounted @ 7.6%

US$21.7k

US$24.5k

US$19.0k

US$19.1k

US$18.0k

US$17.0k

US$16.1k

US$15.2k

US$14.5k

US$13.7k

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = US$179b

After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the initial 10-year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. The Gordon Growth formula is used to calculate Terminal Value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield of 2.4%. We discount the terminal cash flows to today's value at a cost of equity of 7.6%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2033 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = US$28b× (1 + 2.4%) ÷ (7.6%– 2.4%) = US$563b

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= US$563b÷ ( 1 + 7.6%)10= US$272b

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is US$450b. To get the intrinsic value per share, we divide this by the total number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of US$153, the company appears quite undervalued at a 37% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Remember though, that this is just an approximate valuation, and like any complex formula - garbage in, garbage out.

dcf
dcf

The Assumptions

The calculation above is very dependent on two assumptions. The first is the discount rate and the other is the cash flows. You don't have to agree with these inputs, I recommend redoing the calculations yourself and playing with them. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Chevron as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 7.6%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.125. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

SWOT Analysis for Chevron

Strength

  • Debt is not viewed as a risk.

  • Dividends are covered by earnings and cash flows.

Weakness

  • Earnings declined over the past year.

  • Dividend is low compared to the top 25% of dividend payers in the Oil and Gas market.

Opportunity

  • Annual earnings are forecast to grow for the next 3 years.

  • Good value based on P/E ratio and estimated fair value.

Threat

  • Annual earnings are forecast to grow slower than the American market.

Looking Ahead:

Whilst important, the DCF calculation ideally won't be the sole piece of analysis you scrutinize for a company. It's not possible to obtain a foolproof valuation with a DCF model. Instead the best use for a DCF model is to test certain assumptions and theories to see if they would lead to the company being undervalued or overvalued. For instance, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically alter the overall result. Can we work out why the company is trading at a discount to intrinsic value? For Chevron, we've compiled three important items you should consider:

  1. Risks: Take risks, for example - Chevron has 2 warning signs we think you should be aware of.

  2. Management:Have insiders been ramping up their shares to take advantage of the market's sentiment for CVX's future outlook? Check out our management and board analysis with insights on CEO compensation and governance factors.

  3. Other High Quality Alternatives: Do you like a good all-rounder? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!

PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the NYSE every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.

Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team (at) simplywallst.com.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.

Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team@simplywallst.com