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13 Largest Refineries in the US

In this article, we will look at the 13 largest refineries in the US. We have also discussed the latest global predictions about crude oil prices. If you want to skip our detailed analysis, head straight to the 5 Largest Refineries in the US

In January 2024, the Brent crude oil spot price rose to $80 per barrel, marking a $2 increase from December. This uptick followed heightened concerns about global oil shipments due to attacks on vessels in the Red Sea, a crucial shipping channel, especially significant given Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Despite these tensions, no oil production had been lost as of February 6.

Global oil inventories saw a notable increase, averaging 0.8 million barrels per day (b/d) from October 2023 to January 2024. This accumulation, coupled with production stability, limited the impact of the Red Sea attacks on oil prices. However, OPEC+ production cuts are expected to lead to inventory withdrawals of 0.8 million b/d in the first quarter of 2024, potentially driving prices up.

Looking ahead, global liquid fuels production is forecasted to increase by 0.6 million b/d in 2024, with non-OPEC supply leading the growth. Meanwhile, global consumption is projected to rise by 1.4 million b/d in 2024, with significant growth in non-OECD Asia, particularly in China and India. Despite these increases, oil prices are expected to fluctuate, reaching the mid-$80s per barrel range in early 2024 before stabilizing and averaging $81/b in December 2024, with a slight decline anticipated by December 2025.

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On February 16, 2024, with the simmering Middle East tensions, US crude oil settled at $79.19 per barrel, the highest since November. The West Texas Intermediate contract for March increased by $1.16, marking a 1.49% increase, while April Brent futures settled at $83.47, up 61 cents per barrel. 

Speculative traders seized on geopolitical uncertainties, propelling US crude to a weekly increase of 3%, hitting its peak since November 6. Meanwhile, the global benchmark climbed 1.5%, reaching its highest level since January 26. Escalating border tensions between Israel and Lebanon added to market anxieties, overshadowing concerns about stubborn inflation and a murky demand outlook. Geopolitical factors continue to exert significant influence on oil markets, driving volatility and shaping price trajectories.

The ongoing conflict in the Middle East amplifies uncertainties, with geopolitical events often triggering abrupt shifts in oil prices. As tensions persist, market participants remain vigilant, closely monitoring developments and their potential impacts on global supply and demand dynamics.

It is worth highlighting that in 2023, the US crude oil refining capacity rebounded by over 100,000 barrels per day (bpd) after a two-year decline, reaching 18.1 million bpd, as per a recent government report. During the initial two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, processing capacity for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel dropped by 5.4%, mainly due to reduced demand caused by lockdowns and remote work arrangements. 

However, with the resurgence in demand for gasoline and diesel last year, coupled with diminished capacity, the industry witnessed soaring fuel prices and record profits. President Joe Biden urged oil companies to lower prices and reinvest profits into expanding output. United States is also the largest exporter of refined petroleum

The increase in capacity is attributed to expansions at Marathon Petroleum Corp (NYSE:MPC) and Citgo Petroleum, yet it still falls short of the peak capacity of 18.98 million bpd in 2019. Notably, ExxonMobil Corp (NYSE:XOM)’s refinery in Beaumont, Texas, added 250,000 bpd in capacity, marking the largest expansion to a US refinery in over a decade, bringing the total capacity to around 18.3 million bpd. Marathon Petroleum Corp (NYSE:MPC) remains the largest US refiner, with major contributions from Valero Energy Corp (NYSE:VLO) and Motiva Enterprises, with a shifting landscape towards renewable energy sources. To read more about refineries, see the top 20 Largest Refineries In The World.

On the other hand, Chevron Corp (NYSE:CVX) and its partners have greenlit a $24 million investment to enhance natural gas production from the Tamar reservoir, situated off Israel’s Mediterranean coast. This will mark the second phase of a project aimed at elevating production to approximately 1.6 billion cubic feet (BCF) per day, with plans to export to Egypt. The investment signifies Chevron Corp (NYSE:CVX)’s commitment to bolstering Israel's energy resources for both domestic and regional markets. The project includes laying a 150-kilometer pipeline and expanding production to 1.2 BCF daily, with completion expected in 2025, requiring a total investment of $673 million.

It is worth mentioning that the C and H refinery is a rare industrial site and is renowned for its distinction as the world's smallest functioning oil refinery.

13 Largest Refineries in the US
13 Largest Refineries in the US

Aerial view of an oil & gas refinery, showcasing the scale of operations.

Our Methodology

For our list of the largest refineries in the US, we utilized data on crude oil refineries’ operable capacity as of January 2023 as our primary metric. We relied on data from the US Energy Information Administration. The list is presented in an ascending order. 

By the way, Insider Monkey is an investing website that uses a consensus approach to identify the best stock picks of more than 900 hedge funds investing in US stocks. The website tracks the movement of corporate insiders and hedge funds. Our top 10 consensus stock picks of hedge funds outperformed the S&P 500 stock index by more than 140 percentage points over the last 10 years (see the details here). So, if you are looking for the best stock picks to buy, you can benefit from the wisdom of hedge funds and corporate insiders.

13. Valero Energy Corp, Texas

Barrels per Calender Day: 335,000

Company: Premcor Refining Group Inc

Site: Port Arthur

Valero Energy Corp (NYSE:VLO)’s Texas City Refinery is situated on the Houston Ship Channel and boasts a workforce of approximately 445 employees processing 335,000 barrels per day. The refinery is a proud participant in OSHA's Voluntary Protection Program and actively focuses on safety and community engagement. With over 10,000 volunteer hours since 2018, Valero Energy Corp (NYSE:VLO) invests in local initiatives, contributing over $4 million to the United Way and $3 million to area charities since 2017. Committed to environmental responsibility, the refinery has largely reduced emissions and invested over $1 billion in environmental and reliability improvements. It is one of the largest refineries in America

Texas is one of the states with the largest refining capacity

12. Koch Industries Inc, Minnesota

Barrels per Calender Day: 335,000

Company: Flint Hills Resources LP

Site: Saint Paul

Operated by Marathon Petroleum Corp (NYSE:MPC), the Saint Paul Park refinery in Minnesota, USA, holds huge importance in the energy sector. With operations commencing in 1939, it boasts a Nelson Complexity Index (NCI) of 11.45, indicating its sophisticated refining capabilities. Despite encountering three incidents between 2017 and 2022, it remains a key asset in Marathon Petroleum Corp (NYSE:MPC)’s portfolio. 

The St. Paul Park Refinery is the recipient of the Minnesota Safety Council's award. Engaging with the community, employees from the refinery actively participated as judges at the 85th Minnesota State Science & Engineering Fair, evaluating projects from hundreds of students. Over 20 MPC employees volunteered for a local Adopt-a-Highway initiative which confirm the refinery's commitment to community service.

11. WRB Refining LP, Illinois

Barrels per Calender Day: 356,000

Company: WRB Refining LP

Site: Wood River

The Wood River Refinery, established in 1917 near Roxana, Illinois, close to St. Louis, Missouri, spans approximately 2,200 acres. With a skilled workforce of around 800 employees, it boasts a Nelson Complexity Factor of 11.0, indicating its sophisticated operations. The refinery's facilities have various units including crude distilling, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and coking that enable a clean product yield capability of 81%. Predominantly focused on transportation fuels, it also produces petrochemical feedstocks, asphalt, and fuel-grade petroleum coke, distributing refined products across the Midcontinent region via pipeline, railcar, barge, and truck, cementing its pivotal role in regional energy infrastructure. It is one of the largest refineries in the US in 2024

10. Chevron Corp, Mississippi

Barrels per Calender Day: 356,440

Company: Chevron USA Inc

Site: Pascagoula

Chevron Corp (NYSE:CVX)’s Pascagoula Refinery, with a capacity of 356,440 barrels per day, primarily produces motor gasoline and fuel oils like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Specialty products include benzene, ethylbenzene, propylene, and premium base oils. The refining process involves separation, treatment to remove impurities, and cracking to create various transportation fuels. Committed to environmental standards, Chevron Corp (NYSE:CVX) operates in partnership with suppliers and offers a plethora of career opportunities. 

9. Marathon Petroleum Corp, California

Barrels per Calender Day: 363,000

Company: Tesoro Refining & Marketing Co

Site: Carson

Located in Los Angeles County near the bustling Los Angeles Harbor, the refinery is the largest on the West Coast, with an impressive crude oil capacity of 363,000 barrels per calendar day. Processing crudes sourced from California, Alaska North Slope, South America, West Africa, and beyond, the refinery is a key player in producing clean fuels. From California Air Resources Board (CARB) gasoline to CARB diesel fuel, conventional gasoline, distillates, and coke variants, the refinery offers a diverse range of products. With a strong commitment to safety and environmental stewardship, it continually invests in technology upgrades, emission reduction measures, and community initiatives. It is one of the top refineries in the US

8. ExxonMobil Corp, Texas

Barrels per Calender Day: 369,024

Company: Exxonmobil Refining & Supply Co

Site: Beaumont

ExxonMobil Corp (NYSE:XOM)’s Beaumont refining facilities, established in 1903 along the Neches River, have evolved into a vital petrochemical complex as it plays a key role in global energy supply. With a workforce dedicated to safety and emergency response, ExxonMobil Corp (NYSE:XOM) engages deeply with the Beaumont community, contributing over $50 million in local taxes annually and volunteering more than 25,000 hours. The refinery generates one out of every seven jobs in the area and invests in educational activities, youth programs, senior services, and hunger relief. It is one of the refineries with the largest capacity in the US

7. BP PLC, Indiana

Barrels per Calender Day: 435,000

Company: BP Products North America Inc

Site: Whiting

The Whiting Refinery is situated on Lake Michigan's southwestern shore and is operated by BP. It spans Whiting, Indiana, with parts extending into Hammond and East Chicago. Founded in 1889 by Standard Oil of Indiana, it's the seventh largest US refinery with a capacity of 435,000 barrels per day of crude oil.

6. PDV America Inc, Louisiana

Barrels per Calender Day: 455,000

Company: Citgo Petroleum Corp

Site: Lake Charles

Lake Charles II is an integrated coking refinery and is managed by CITGO Petroleum. Established in 1944, it is situated in Louisiana, USA. The refinery has a Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) capacity of 455 thousand barrels per day (mbd) and holds an Nelson Complexity Index (NCI) of 11.6. Petroleos de Venezuela SA is the proprietor of this facility. 

Click here to see the 5 Largest Refineries in the US

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Disclosure: None. 13 Largest Refineries in the US is originally published on Insider Monkey.